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    School Performance Depends on Close Attention to Social Equity

    Ohanian Comment: The outrage here is that so few people acknowledge the history--and the present circumstance of public education. I would just add these facts to Gary's important observations:

    In 2008-09, 44.2% of students in U. S. public schools were identified as low income.

    In New Hampshire, it's 20.5%.

    In California, it's 51.7%.

    In New Mexico, it's 61.4%

    In Washington, D. C., it's 67.1%.

    In Mississippi, it's 68.3%.

    And so on.

    These figures come from The US Department of Education Data Express, so it isn't though they don't know the facts. They just choose to ignore and obfuscate them.

    By Gary Ravani

    Or, As They Say In Finland: koulumenestys riippuu huomiota sosiaaliseen pääomaan.

    Let us recall that seminal document in the US school reform movement, "A Nation At Risk" (ANAR). Released in 1983, it reflected the Cold War paranoia of the time with breathless rhetoric: "If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war." Scary talk. This created a mindset for some of the public, but most of the pundits, that America's schools were broken.

    In 1990 the USDE assigned scientists at Sandia Labs in New Mexico the task of using their huge computers to crunch the available test data to justify the conclusions of ANAR. The scientists found that test scores had actually gone up for every sub-group. A statistical anomaly had caused the average scores to go down because a larger proportion of students with low but improving scores were participating in the tests. This "Sandia Report" was eventually leaked but received scant coverage in the popular press.

    The US economy was in a mild recession when ANAR was released and Japan was seen as a competitive threat. ANAR attributed Japan's success to superior international test scores--as if 17 year olds bubbling in answer sheets had some real time impacts on the economy. By the mid-1990s the US economy rebounded and Japan's tanked. Japan maintained the high test scores.

    Though contrary to the historical record let's assume that international test scores do indicate a competitive threat and that recent statements like Arne Duncan's insisting that that countries like Finland and Singapore are "outperforming us" have merit. This, in spite of the fact that the World Economic Forum ranks the US economy 4th in the world in economic competitiveness. This is down from the number one position the US held for over a decade. Neither education nor international test scores are mentioned as reasons for the drop, though instability in the banking industry and lack of transparency in auditing are. We know about that.

    International tests scores do show Singapore and Finland doing very well, with the US in the middle of the pack, and that should not be dismissed lightly. What are the differences in educational and social po

    One proposed reason is a difference in the quality of the teachers in the three countries. However, a comprehensive study done by the Educational Testing Service called "How Teachers Compare" asserts US teachers, academically, compare favorably with any other profession.

    Singapore has a new school reform effort called "Blue Sky." According to the Ministry of Education's web site the reforms involve "More quality in terms of classroom interaction, opportunities for expression, the learning of life-long skills," and "Less quantity in terms of rote-learning, repetitive tests, and following prescribed answers..."

    Right off it doesn't appear Singapore is following the US pattern of ANAR- and NCLB-driven reforms, which are all about increased dependence on repetitive tests and prescribed curriculum. According to Singapore's Prime Minister Lee: "We need to pay more attention to PE, to arts, and music..." What, no science and math?

    Finland has its own school success story to tell us. Children begin formal education, but with an emphasis on play and interaction, at age seven. Teachers are highly paid, highly autonomous, and highly unionized. National standards are concise. Finland's math standards run to around eleven pages, whereas the new Common Core math standards exceed ninety pages. There are no national standardized tests and no "accountability measures" as we know them. Teaching is a very prestigious profession in Finland and there is no indication they have an interest in data driven inquisitions to ferret out "bad teachers."

    The Finish Ministry of Education and Culture insists school performance is linked to a close attention to social equity issues. The Finnish childhood poverty rate is one of the lowest in the industrialized world. Universal health and dental care, paid parental leave, and seamless social services are a given. Notably, the US has a childhood poverty rate that exceeds all industrialized nations except Mexico.

    Will the influential school reformers and policy makers in the US (like Arne Duncan, Bill Gates, et. al.) give up the obsession with standardized tests, as has Singapore? Will the US implement the kind of social safety net found in Finland, or will there be a continued demand for Finland's test scores but without all the pesky socialism? How badly does the US want those impressive international test scores?
    These are critical questions.

    — Gary Ravini



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