Maryland Schools Figuring Out NCLB Costs Big Bucks
After months of complaining about having to pay for the unspecified costs of new federal education requirements, Carroll school officials have preliminary estimates of how much the sweeping reforms will cost county taxpayers.
It's more expensive than expected: about $3,825,000 in a mix of annual and one-time expenses.
And school officials anticipate that figure will grow as they work through thousands of pages of regulations tied to the No Child Left Behind Act - some of which have been rewritten even as school systems across the country struggle to enact the most far-reaching federal education bill passed in nearly four decades.
To meet these "unfunded mandates," Carroll officials are seeking money from the state and federal governments. They met last week with Sen. Barbara A. Mikulski's aide, who promised to bring their concerns to the senator's attention.
Carroll officials predict they will spend a six-figure sum just to make sure they understand the new regulations.
"Conceptually, it's a great idea," Stephen Guthrie, Carroll's assistant superintendent of administration, said of the bill signed into law by President Bush in January last year. "But there are things that are just unworkable in a practical sense. And there are zero federal dollars for these new initiatives."
A new requirement that teachers must have teaching certificates in the subjects they teach - and take tests to prove their competency in those subjects - will cost the system about $2 million, Guthrie said.
A requisite that schools inform parents when their children are not being taught by instructors who meet those requirements will cost about $1 million in technology upgrades for databases that will link student schedules with teacher assignments and teachers' human resources files.
Costs of compliance
A provision that paraprofessional employees, such as kindergarten assistants, have at least an associate's degree or two years of college will cost the school district at least $700,000 a year in salary increases.
"The former qualification was a high school diploma, so there's some expectation that if the qualifications are higher, the pay would increase as well," Guthrie said. "Even I understand that, and I'm sitting on the management side."
Guthrie also estimates that the school system will have to spend about $25,000 more a year on recruiting to attract teaching applicants who meet the "highly qualified" requirement.
And, Guthrie said, an initiative designed to improve instruction for the neediest students requires school systems to spend scarce dollars on administrative tasks. Carroll schools will spend an estimated $100,000 in staff time for meetings and training to untangle the new regulations.
"A cottage industry has sprung up among people trying to help school systems comply with No Child Left Behind - for a fee, of course," Guthrie said.
The assistant superintendent also expects "significant unknown costs" from a provision that allows parents to transfer their children to another school if the current school is deemed "needing improvement" or "persistently dangerous."
What makes those expense estimates tricky, Guthrie said, is that no one has worked out how states will make those kinds of determinations, and no local school official can forecast how many parents will take advantage of the transfer option or how much it will cost to reroute buses to transport children to their new school of choice.
School administrators also can't put a price tag on intangibles, such as how much new state assessments will cost local districts in curriculum changes or staff time for interpreting assessment results.
'Highly qualified' staff
But of all the concerns generated by the No Child Left Behind Act, the most pressing remains the new standards that teachers must meet to be considered "highly qualified," Guthrie said. The $2 million cost of this provision comes from training materials and staff salaries.
"When local school systems require teachers to be retrained or retested, they have a financial obligation to provide for those teachers," said Harry Fogle, the director of elementary and special education. "When we require higher levels of training, it will cost us more to hire these highly qualified staff."
Guthrie estimates that about 40 percent of classes in Carroll public schools are being taught by teachers who do not meet the new federal requirements - in large part because Maryland did not require testing for teacher certification before 1987 and still does not require an assessment for teachers of kindergarten through third-grade.
"We have wonderful teachers who have been teaching for years, who have been Teacher of the Year award winners, and who now are not considered highly qualified by the federal law," Guthrie said.
At a recent meeting attended by Carroll school officials and county leaders, Commissioner Dean L. Minnich agreed with the criticism. "Those are artificial guidelines that would make most of our administrators greeters at Wal-Mart," he said.
Minnich noted that Fogle, the elementary and special education director and a member of the superintendent's cabinet, would not pass muster under the new definitions. "Harry has a Ph.D.," Minnich added, "and would be not qualified under this regulation."
Minnich and the other commissioners asked Mikulski to push for more federal money to help pay for the new education expenses. Amy M. Short, Mikulski's assistant, made no promises except to make the senator aware of their concerns.
Highlighting another quirk of the educational initiative's requirements, Guthrie said that every Mount Airy fifth-grader is in class every day with teachers who do not meet the federal requirements - but only because the school system transferred Mount Airy Elementary's fifth-graders to portables on the Mount Airy Middle School campus to ease overcrowding until a second elementary school is built.
Because those fifth-grade teachers are now technically teaching at a middle school and the federal law requires that middle school teachers have middle school teaching certificates, those fifth-grade instructors are not deemed highly qualified, he explained.
There are no sanctions for such an arrangement, but the federal reporting requirement mandates that the school system send letters home to all those fifth-graders' parents informing them that the teachers are not considered highly qualified.
"The intent of the law - the big picture and the grand scheme - seems feasible," Guthrie said. "Increasing the quality of the people teaching our children is a good idea.
"But in school systems like Carroll County, where we have high standards in hiring and training, the requirements are arbitrary and capricious. They're saying, 'These standards will make you better,' when there is no data out there to support that."
Schools estimate cost of reforms
April 6, 2003
INDEX OF NCLB OUTRAGES